Insulin is a hormone that regulates blood sugar (glucose). It can also occur when the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces.

Some effects of diabetes include heart disease, vision loss, and kidney injury. If blood sugar levels are not controlled, diabetes can seriously damage other organs and systems in the body over time.

There are two main types of diabetes:
• Type 1 diabetes is often diagnosed during childhood or young adulthood. It’s the result of an immune system dysfunction.

• Type 2 diabetes is often acquired during later adulthood. It’s typically the result of poor diet, inactivity, obesity, and other lifestyle and environmental factors.

Other types of diabetes include:
• Gestational diabetes, which causes elevated blood sugar in 3 to 8 percent of pregnant women in the United States

• Prediabetes, is a condition defined by higher-than-normal blood sugar levels that lead to a very high risk of developing type 2 diabetes in the near future.

• Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY), is a group of several conditions characterized by abnormally high blood sugar levels. These forms of diabetes typically begin before age 30, although they can occur later in life.

Type 1.5 diabetes: Type 1.5 diabetes is a non-official term that is sometimes used to refer to a form of type 1 diabetes known as Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults (LADA).

The term type 1.5 refers to the fact that a condition is a form of type 1 diabetes that can share some features that are more commonly associated with type 2 diabetes. Type 1.5 diabetes is diagnosed during adulthood as are most cases of type 2 diabetes.

 Type 1.5 diabetes also has a slow onset, similar to type 2 diabetes. However, type 1.5 diabetes is an autoimmune disease like type 1 diabetes and will almost certainly require insulin therapy at some point in the future. Misdiagnosis as having type 2 diabetes is common. Around 15-20% of people diagnosed with type 2 diabetes may actually have Type 1.5 diabetes. Medications designed to reduce insulin resistance do not work, as people with type 1.5 have little or no resistance to insulin.

• Type 3 diabetes: a condition that can follow after initially being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. In type 3 diabetes, the neurons lack glucose, a key element needed for the neurons to function effectively in the body however more specifically the hippocampus and the cerebral cortex.

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